Cambridge EnerTech’s

Battery Safety

Battery Testing & Regulations

March 26-27, 2019

As more high-energy density batteries enter the market, it is becoming increasingly important for battery safety testing and regulations to advance along with new technologies to ensure safe battery function and consumer use. Battery regulations and safety testing must stay up-to-date with large R&D advancements. Regulatory agencies and associations, cell R&D engineers and reliability engineers must develop robust and reliable tests for the progressively complex cell and pack designs. Maintaining battery pack stability and mitigating thermal runaway to improve safety are vital to the success of batteries in the market.

Final Agenda

Monday, March 25

7:00 am – 3:00 pm Tutorial and Training Seminar* Registration Open

7:00 – 8:00 am Morning Coffee

8:00 – 4:00 pm Pre-Conference Tutorials and Training Seminar*

4:00 Close of Day

*Separate registration required for Tutorials and Training Seminar.

Tuesday, March 26

7:00 am Registration and Morning Coffee


8:05 Organizer’s Opening Remarks

Victoria Mosolgo, Conference Producer, Cambridge EnerTech

8:10 Chairperson’s Remarks

Cynthia Millsaps, President and CEO, Quality, Energy Assurance LLC

8:15 Battery Regulations for “Drop-In” Lithium-Ion Batteries

Cynthia Millsaps, President and CEO, Quality, Energy Assurance LLC

In recent years, there are more and more applications moving to Li-ion as a replacement for the older lead acid technology. In many cases, a single battery form factor and design can be used in multiple different “drop-in” applications. However, from a standards point of view, there may be a need to apply more than 1 set of tests to the same battery based on the application it is used in. Also, it is not as clear what/who will be driving the need for standards testing and certification in various regions for these types of batteries.

8:45 Talk Title to be Announced

Douglas Lee, Directorate for Engineering Sciences, U.S. Consumer for Product Safety Commission

UL_Enterprise 9:15 Advancing Battery Tech Innovations Through Safety

Michael Sakamoto, Senior Business Development Manager, Consumer Technology Division, UL LLC

With battery technologies enabling devices that promote mobility, convenience, and innovation for consumers, there has been a rapid and steady emergence of products where battery and its end device design elements have become critical for defining safe use and operation. UL has pursued to look at these devices, and with their public safety mission in mind, have developed industry standards that promote safer design practices. This presentation will cover few of those examples

9:45 Networking Coffee Break


10:15 Chairperson’s Remarks

William Q. Walker, PhD, Aerospace Technologist, Engineering Directorate (EA), Structural Engineering Division (ES), Thermal Design Branch (ES3), NASA Johnson Space Center

10:20 Combining Fractional Calorimetry with Statistical Methods to Characterize Thermal Runaway

William Q. Walker, PhD, Aerospace Technologist, Engineering Directorate (EA), Structural Engineering Division (ES), Thermal Design Branch (ES3), NASA Johnson Space Center

Fractional thermal runaway calorimetry (FTRC) techniques were introduced to examine thermal runaway (TR) behavior of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells. Specifically, FTRC considers the total energy released vs. the fraction of the total energy that is released through the cell casing versus through the ejecta material. The original FTRC device was designed to accommodate 18650-format Li-ion cells. This device has been expanded to universally support FTRC testing of additional cell types including 21700-format, D-Cell format, and large prismatic format Li-ion cells. The TR behavior as influenced by cell format, manufacturer, chemistry, capacity, and in situ safety features are described in this presentation.

10:50 Predicting Thermal Propagation Using an Uncertainty Quantification Framework

Kevin Marr, PhD, Research Engineer, Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin

This presentation will detail an experimental and modeling framework that utilizes an uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology to predict and evaluate thermal propagation in battery modules. In this framework, small-scale abuse tests of single and multi-cell tests are conducted. Thermal properties and kinetic parameters are estimated using inversion methods and are then used as input parameters to thermal-chemical models to predict the thermal propagation in a full-scale battery.

11:20 Integrated Multiphysics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Pack Safety

Chuanbo Yang, PhD, Energy Storage Engineer, Vehicle Electrification Group, Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Battery CAE tools are effective in evaluating safety design concepts and identify key design parameters preventing cascading failures among batteries. An integrated multiphysics safety modeling framework is developed for large format lithium-ion batteries and applied to provide insights into battery pack behaviors subject to internal short circuits. The impact of the energy released by failed battery cells in the form of gas and ejecta on pack safety is addressed in this numerical approach.

11:50 Minimizing Risk in Fielded Lithium-Ion Battery Cells with Cell Screening Technology

Robert Fricke, Senior Advisor, Adjunct Director, CAMX Power
Suresh Sriramulu, PhD, Head of Development CAMX Power

Lithium-ion battery safety events in fielded cells have shown the immense downside associated with a single cell failure. To minimize this risk, CAMX Power’s Cell Screening Technology (CST) can efficiently and reliably detect the presence of internal short-circuits in LIB cells. This talk will discuss the current readiness and potential uses of CST, as well as other short-detection technologies currently in development.

12:20 pm Grand Opening Networking Luncheon in the Exhibit Hall

1:25 Plenary Keynote Session: Organizer's Remarks

1:30 - 2:00 1000, 2000, 3000 .... N Cycles from Li-Ion Cells: How Large Can N Be?

Jeff Dahn, PhD, Professor of Physics and Atmospheric Science, NSERC/Tesla Canada Industrial Research Chair, Dalhousie University

Our laboratory has developed many methods to help rank the lifetime of cells in relatively short duration experiments (coulombic efficiency, isothermal microcalorimetry, etc.) so that cell developers and users can move rapidly to find next generation chemistries. In this presentation I will describe another powerful method and give examples of how it has been useful in developing outstanding cells that last many thousands of charge-discharge cycles and last many years.

2:00 - 2:30 Battery System Engineering Challenges and Opportunities for the Cell, Pack and System

James Lim, PhD, Battery System Engineering Manager, Google

Designing and verifying a well-balanced battery for safety, reliability, performance, availability, and cost requires strong cross-functional team interactions during system integration and product launch. The opportunities are being able to provide viable options, evaluate tradeoffs, and deliver battery solutions associated with next generation products.

2:30 Dessert Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing


3:15 Chairperson’s Remarks

Brett Huhman, PhD, Electrical Engineer, Plasma Physics Division, US Naval Research Laboratory

3:20 A Single-Frequency Impedance Diagnostic for State of Health Determination in Li-Ion 4P1S Battery Packs

Brett Huhman, PhD, Electrical Engineer, Plasma Physics Division, US Naval Research Laboratory

A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of a 4P1S battery array using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to identify key frequencies that may describe battery state of health at any state of charge. The experiment established that discharging batteries in parallel at high C rates resulted in a 75.32% reduction in life compared to operating solo as well as an operating envelope to evaluate battery health. Additionally, a post-mortem analysis of cells from three configurations (baseline, single-cell, and parallel-cell) demonstrated physical damage to the copper current collector in the anode in the parallel-connected cell.

3:50 Development of a Safe, Lightweight Li-Ion 28V Battery for Navy Aircraft Applications

Trung Nguyen, PhD, Vice President, Aircraft Power Sources, EIC Laboratories, Inc.

Lithium-ion batteries, with their high power and energy density, long cycle life, and low self-discharge rate, are an attractive alternative to meet immediate on-board equipment power needs. In comparison with well-established lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries, Li-ion batteries offer significant advantages: decreased weight and increased capacity. EIC Laboratories, in a program sponsored by NAVAIR, has developed and qualified a safe, lightweight Li-ion 28V aircraft battery where potential thermal instabilities are eliminated.

4:20 Mechanically Triggered Battery Safety Strategy

Yu Qiao, PhD, Professor, Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego

Without changing battery chemistry, by modifying current collectors, fracture mode of electrodes in a lithium-ion battery can be favorably adjusted to mitigate thermal runaway. Impact tests on pouch cells showed encouraging results.

4:50 Welcome Reception in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

5:50 Interactive Breakout Discussion Groups

The breakouts are informal, moderated discussions with brainstorming and interactive problem solving, allowing participants from diverse backgrounds to exchange ideas and experiences and develop future collaborations around a focused topic. Each topic is led by a moderator who ensures focused conversation around the key issues of that topic. Attendees choose to join a specific group.

6:50 Close of Day

Wednesday, March 27

7:15 am Registration and Morning Coffee


8:25 Chairperson’s Remarks

Ahmad A. Pesaran, PhD, Manager, Energy Storage Group, Transportation and Hydrogen System Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

8:30 Analysis of Factors that Affect Thermal Failures and Propagation in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Steve Hwang, PhD, U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (U.S. DOT – PHMSA)

Despite seemingly redundant regulatory frameworks designed to overcome unique safety challenges posed by conditions incident to normal transportation of lithium batteries, cell or battery failures are still occurrences of concern. This study focuses on the safety challenges pertaining to cell or battery thermal failures and failure propagation mechanisms.

9:00 Transportation Complexities of New, Refurbished, and Waste Lithium Batteries

George Kerchner, Executive Director, PRBA - The Rechargeable Battery Association

What happens when lithium batteries are disassembled and refurbished? Are they subject to the dangerous goods and hazardous waste regulations when transported? When lithium batteries reach the end of life and are shipped domestically and internationally as waste, what transport and hazardous waste regulations apply? Do they require a hazardous waste manifest when transported within or exported from the U.S., require an export permit from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and consent from the country receiving the waste batteries?


9:30 Understanding Regulatory Hurdles to Installing Battery Systems in Buildings - An Overview of Codes & Standards

Laurie Florence, Principal Engineer, Commercial & Industrial, EP & T, UL LLC

This presentation is intended to provide the audience with an overview of the various model codes and standards that will impact the installation of battery systems and battery energy storage systems in the built environment. Critical model codes such as the NEC and the Fire Codes have been updated to better address battery energy storage systems that are being deployed in areas that are subject approval by authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs). These model codes are placing limitation on sizes, locations and type of systems that can be deployed and often requiring that the systems be “Listed” to an appropriate standard. In addition, to the development of new code criteria, there have been development of safety standards to address these systems and that can be used to list the system in accordance with code requirements. These standards include UL 1973, the ANSI standard for stationary batteries and UL 9540, the ANSI and Canadian National Standard for energy storage systems as well as UL 9540A, which was developed to address large scale fault and fire testing options written into the fire codes.

10:00 Coffee Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing


10:45 Safety of Aged Pouch Format Lithium-Ion Cells

Judith Jeevarajan, PhD, Research Director, Electrochemical Safety, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

The Phase I of our study on aging and safety included the testing of lithium-ion cells of cylindrical format in metal cans that include internal protective features. Pouch format cells do not contain such internal protective features and the safety behavior is very different from the cylindrical format. Results of off-nominal tests such as overcharge and external short on fresh cells and cells that have aged and at various levels of capacity loss will be presented. Results from the destructive analysis of the fresh and aged cells will also be presented.

11:15 Determining Safety of Second Life Batteries

Shriram Santhanagopalan, PhD, Engineer, Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This presentation will detail the NREL methods for determining safety of recycled batteries as well as requirements for recycling.

11:45 PANEL DISCUSSION: Department of Energy Focused Battery Recycling Initiatives

Moderator: Ahmad A. Pesaran, PhD, Manager, Energy Storage Group, Transportation and Hydrogen System Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

This panel will focus on the United States’ newest lithium-ion battery recycling programs. The new battery recycling infrastructure that will be laid out in the US will also be outlined.

EVE_NEW12:15 pm Networking Plated Luncheon

1:15 Dessert Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

1:45 Pleanry Keynote Session: Organizer's Remarks

1:50 Shep Wolsky Battery Innovator Award

2:00 PANEL DISCUSSION: What Innovations/Advancements Do OEMs Need to Enable Near-Term, Large-Scale Production?


Celina Mikolajczak, Director of Engineering, Energy Storage Systems, Uber



Mohamed Alamgir, PhD, Research Director, LG Chem

Micheal Austin, Vice President, BYD US Operations (BYD America-IT, BYD Motors, BYD Energy)

Craig Rigby, Vice President Technology, Power Solutions, Johnson Controls

Bob Taenaka, Technical Specialist, Battery System Development, Ford Motor Company

What do OEMs need for near term, large-scale innovation? Can the global battery R&D community deliver on what advancements OEMs need for large-scale production? Our distinguished panel will discuss what they need to innovate and what they anticipate their future requirements will be. In addition, our panelists will discuss what innovation can be achieved to meet the OEMs requirements.

2:55 Refreshment Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

3:40 Close of Conference

* The program is subject to change without notice, due to unforeseen reason.

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